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Journal Article

e‑Learning Challenges Faced by Universities in Kenya: A Literature Review  pp150-161

Rachael Njeri Kibuku, Prof. Daniel Orwa Ochieng, Prof. Agnes Nduku Wausi

© Feb 2020 Volume 18 Issue 2, Editor: Heinrich Söbke and Marija Cubric, pp114 - 206

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Some institutions of higher education in Kenya have adopted e‑Learning with the aim of coping with the increased demand for university education and to widen access to university training and education. Though there are advantages that accrue from adopting e‑Learning; its implementation and provision has not been smooth sailing. It has had to contend with certain national, organisational, technical and social challenges that undermine its successful implementation. This paper therefore aims to present a literature review of the challenges faced in the implementation and provision of e‑Learning in universities in Kenya. The scoping review method was used to identify and analyze the literature of the e‑Learning challenges. Some of the challenges revealed include: lack of adequate e‑Learning policies, inadequate Information and Communication Technology (ICT) infrastructure, the ever evolving technologies, lack of technical and pedagogical competencies and training for e‑tutors and e‑learners, lack of an e‑Learning theory to underpin the e‑Learning practice, budgetary constraints and sustainability issues, negative perceptions towards e‑Learning, quality issues, domination of e‑Learning aims by technology and market forces and lack of collaboration among the e‑Learning participants. These challenges need to be addressed to minimise their impact on implementation and delivery of e‑Learning initiatives in institutions of higher education in Kenya. This analysis of the e‑Learning challenges forms the basis for the ongoing research that seeks to explore and establish possible strategies to address some of these challenges.


Keywords: ICT, Distance Education (DE), e-Learning, e-Learning Challenges and Kenya


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