The Electronic Journal of e-Learning provides perspectives on topics relevant to the study, implementation and management of e-Learning initiatives
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Journal Article

The Implications of SCORM Conformance for Workplace e‑Learning  pp183-190

Gabrielle Witthaus

© Jun 2009 Volume 7 Issue 2, Editor: Shirley Williams, pp85 - 190

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Abstract

This paper explores the impact that SCORM conformance has had on workplace e‑learning. The author describes a project in which she was requested to "repurpose" some materials that had originally been designed for the face‑to‑face teaching of English as a Foreign Language, into SCORM conformant e‑learning materials. The rationale for this request was that the training centre management wanted to track learners' progress via a Learning Management System (LMS). However, in order to integrate SCORM‑conformant tracking functionality into the programmes, the learning materials would have to have been stripped of all the collaborative, productive and communicative aspects of their pedagogy. The learning designers and training centre management had to engage in a steep learning curve to find an alternative solution that was both pedagogically sound and administratively efficient. This anecdote highlights some of the challenges facing the corporate sector in terms of the management of e‑learning content. To put the issues into context, the paper gives an overview of SCORM, and defines some related terminology — Sharable Content Objects (SCOs), LMS and Learning Content Management System (LCMS). SCORM conformance has two main aims: the ability to deliver content on any Learning Management System, and the ability to track learners' actions and scores when they use the materials. It is argued that, while the higher education sector has chosen to emphasise the first aim, focusing more on the development of stimulating learning content that can be shared across disciplines and across institutions, the corporate sector has emphasised the second aim, focusing more on tracking learners' progress through learning programmes. It is suggested that this is one of the explanations for the continued proliferation of relatively rigid, behaviourist style teaching materials for workplace e‑learning. This instructivist style pedagogical model is considered in relation to the military and programming origins of SCORM, and a number of more innovative approaches to workplace e‑learning from the recent literature are discussed. The paper concludes by arguing that, for corporate e‑learning programmes to be successful, all stakeholders need to be included in the strategic decisions, and all stakeholders need to engage in a learning process to understand each others' points of view and explore the available options and their consequences. This study will be of value to anyone who needs to develop SCORM conformant courses, as well as managers who are charged with overseeing such projects, or developing an organisational training strategy involving an LMSLCMS.

 

Keywords: learning design, SCORM conformance, LMS, LCMS, learning objects, e-learning 2.0

 

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Journal Article

A Case Study: Developing Learning Objects with an Explicit Learning Design  pp41-50

Julie Watson

© Jan 2010 Volume 8 Issue 1, Editor: Shirley Williams, pp1 - 50

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Abstract

In learning object design an emphasis on visual attractiveness and high technological impact has seemed to persist while content frequently reflects a lack of clear pedagogical basis for the application of learning objects for online learning. Most apparent is the absence of supportive scaffolding for the student user; interactivity built on an exploratory approach can fall short of achieving its learning objective if support and guidance are missing for the student user who fails to grasp the learning point being offered. Research into developing an effective learning design for learning objects, undertaken by a research and development group in Modern Languages at the University of Southampton, has evolved an explicit pedagogic design for learning objects in English for Academic Purposes and study skills for international students and English native speaker students. These separable learning objects can be aggregated into resource sets or toolkits with multiple usage options for students and teachers. Moreover, this approach to designing effective online language learning materials is based in a defined pedagogy, which also has applicability in developing discipline‑specific learning objects. It seeks to draw on key elements and processes identified in Laurillards Conversational Framework for teaching and learning (Laurillard, 2002). This paper will present a case study of the development of a toolkit of learning objects with an explicit learning design. It will present the pedagogic basis for the development of these learning objects; outlining how they operate both as micro learning contexts and as components within the wider teaching and learning framework of a face‑to‑face or online course. It will also describe research findings showing how learning objects have been received by students and tutors.

 

Keywords: Learning Objects, learning design, blended learning, teacher development, pedagogy

 

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Journal Article

Scaffolding Teachers Integrate Social Media Into a Problem‑Based Learning Approach?  pp13-22

Lillian Buus

© Mar 2012 Volume 10 Issue 1, ICEL 2011, Editor: Philip Balcean, pp1 - 158

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Abstract

At Aalborg University (AAU) we are known to work with problem‑based learning (PBL) in a particular way designated “The Aalborg PBL model”. In PBL the focus is on participant control, knowledge sharing, collaboration among participants, which makes it interesting to consider the integration of social media in the learning that takes place. In this article I would like to depart from the use of this pedagogical model, which integrates social media. The article will look at a learning design model, which could be a spring‑board scaffolding teachers at AAU in their pedagogical approach to learning design when combining the PBL approach with social media or web 2.0 activities or/and technologies. With regard to the discussions about PBL, three important characteristics of PBL can be extracted; the problem, the work process, and the solution, which can be used to distinguish between various theoretical and practical constructions of PBL – regardless initially of whether it is collaborative or cooperative. The three dimensions can then be thought of as stretched between two ends of a continuum between teacher and participant control. These fundamental questions of ownership and control seem also to be more generally applicable in relation to wider debates about social media and learning. The learning design model is based on the collaborative eLearning design (CoED) method. The CoED‑workshop methodology aims to support the design of targeted networked learning. The method scaffolds the design work of practitioners and has been developed and tried out in a number of different settings. Drawing on knowledge and theoretical concepts within the fields of design, systems development and collaborative learning, emphasis is on bringing focus and structure to the early stages of the design process. The method aims to develop design specifications and/or early prototypes within a few hours of starting work. In order to achieve one of the objectives of my PhD, I aim to further developing and elaborate on this method, which hopefully will lead to a pedagogical design method scaffolding teachers in their learning designs, taking into account the PBL approach and integration of social media and web 2.0 technologies. This article will be based on theoretical and methodological considerations within PBL, social media and web 2.0 technologies, together with learning designs trying to illustrate a pedagogical design model scaffolding teachers in their learning design when integrating social media and web 2.0 technologies into the PBL approach at AAU. The method has been tried out at the Faculty of Social Science, AAU during Spring 2011 and the article will present some of the preliminary findings in this.

 

Keywords: social media, web 2.0, PBL, learning design, CoED

 

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Journal Article

Blending the Community of Inquiry Framework with Learning by Design: Towards a Synthesis for Blended Learning in Teacher Training  pp183-194

Katerina Makri, Kyparisia Papanikolaou, Athanasia Tsakiri et al

© May 2014 Volume 12 Issue 2, ECEL, Editor: Mélanie Ciussi, pp126 - 226

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Abstract

Abstract: As e‑learning is evolving into a mainstream, widespread practice, adopted by higher education institutions worldwide, much effort is geared towards the articulation of models and strategies for implementing e‑learning in formal education setting s. In the field of pre‑service teacher education, a rising challenge is to equip the ⠜21st century teacher⠀ with the necessary toolset of skills and competencies to grapple with the idiosyncrasies of the new generation of ⠜millenials⠀. To this pur pose, what still remains an open issue is the degree of innovation afforded by specific e‑learning designs, in a field where traditional teacher training pedagogies co‑exist with e‑learning‑specific ones. This article proposes a synthesis of two models, t he Community of Inquiry (COI) model, based on the Practical Inquiry model introduced by Garrison, Anderson, & Archer (2000) and the Learning by Design framework (LbyD), based on the conceptualization of â New Learning⠒, articulated by Kalantzis & Cope (2012). Both models were invented with new learning styles and circumstances in mind. The proposed synthesis guided the design of the six‑month introductory course in Technology Enhanced Learning by the School of Pedagogical and Technological Edu cation (ASPETE) research team (located in Athens) and implemented with 18 pre service student‑teachers at the Higher Education Technological Institute (TEI) of Lamia, located in another geographical area of Greece. In this context, elements of the C OI framework were employed as tools both for designing and for evaluating the contents, structure and activities of the e‑learning course. Two elements of the framework, teaching and cognitive presence were the axes supporting the course structure, whilst the kinds of activities most promoted were discussion, collaboration and reflection. The LbyD framework functioned as an awareness enhancement mechanism for trainee teachers to formulate, collaboratively negotiate and finally articulate and support pedag ogical scenarios integrating the meaningful use of technol

 

Keywords: Keywords: Community of Inquiry, blended learning, learning design, online teacher training, course design

 

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Journal Article

Student Characteristics and Learning Outcomes in a Blended Learning Environment Intervention in a Ugandan University  pp181-195

Mugenyi Justice Kintu, Chang Zhu

© Jul 2016 Volume 14 Issue 3, Editor: Rikke Ørngreen and Karin Levinsen, pp150 - 232

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Abstract

Abstract: This paper explores the design of a blended learning environment in a transition from face‑to‑face and seeks to determine whether learner characteristics and background together with blended learning design elements are significant factors for l earning outcomes such as intrinsic motivation, satisfaction, knowledge construction and learning performance in blended learning. It is aimed at examining the learner characteristics and backgrounds such as age, gender, self‑regulation, attitudes, family and social support as well as the management of workload in blended learning. It is again to find out the levels of use and satisfaction with blended learning design features such as interactions, learning management system tools and resources, face‑to‑fa ce support and technology quality by learners. Students from three schools and one directorate were involved in a face‑to‑face set up in the first part of a seventeen week semester and in an online set up in the second part. They finally had a face‑to‑fac e at the end to review their work after which they took end of semester examinations. A questionnaire survey was administered to 270 respondents in this group to gather data on student characteristics and background, design features and three of the outco mes. The examination results were used as a measure of the performance variable in the learning outcomes. We applied the online self‑regulated learning questionnaire for data on students self‑regulation, the intrinsic motivation inventory for data on mot ivation and other self‑developed instruments to measure the other constructs. Descriptive statistics showed that the identified learner characteristics manifest strength for blended learning design and the learners involvement with design features was fo und to be high and satisfactory. ANOVA results showed no significant differences between age groups in performance and t‑test results showed no significant differences between male and female students. Regression analysis results showed learner attitudes as predictors of learner satisfaction and motivation while workload management is a significant predictor for learner satisfaction and knowledge construction. Among the design elements, regression results showed only learner interactions as significant pr edictors of knowledge construction and satisfaction. As a consequence, a number of learner characteristics and design features are seen to be important for blended learning design and the non‑significant ones remain a focus for future research.

 

Keywords: Keywords: Student characteristics, blended learning design, learning outcomes and learning management system

 

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Journal Article

E‑Learning in Poly‑Topic Settings  pp206-214

Anne-Mette Nortvig

© May 2014 Volume 12 Issue 2, ECEL, Editor: Mélanie Ciussi, pp126 - 226

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Abstract

Abstract: In e‑learning settings, technology plays several crucial roles in the teaching. In addition to enabling students to gain remote access to teaching, it can also change the way time, space and presence are perceived by students and teachers. This paper attempts to analyse and discuss the consequences of the transparency or visibility of e‑learning technology inside and outside the classroom and highlight its opportunities of multiplying the learning spaces. In order to be able to differentiate bet ween learning that occurs in the same place and learning that occurs in more places at the same time across virtual and physical spaces, the paper therefore introduces the concepts of idiotopic and polytopic learning settings. Furthermore, it argues that the development of polytopic learning designs could help address a potential e‑learning demand for teaching presences in more places at the same time.

 

Keywords: Keywords: e-learning, social presence, physiotherapy education, desktop videoconferencing, idiotopic and polytopic learning designs

 

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Journal Issue

Volume 8 Issue 1 / Jan 2010  pp1‑50

Editor: Shirley Williams

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Editorial

As we enter 2010 it is interesting to reflect how learning has changed over the past decade. Technology has changed considerably over this time period, as have learners’ expectations. In the last 10 years we have gone from internet access as a luxury to many seeing it as a necessity. In this climate it is interesting to look at the data collected by Littlejohn and her colleagues, and to speculate what will happen in the next 10 years, and whether there will be more similarities or differences across the disciplines represented in the papers that form this edition. Shirley Williams Reading January 2010

 

Keywords: assessment for learning, blended learning, collaborative learning, digital literacy, engineering education, English for Academic Purposes (EAP), e-portfolio, , higher education , interdisciplinary collaboration, learning design, learning objects., online assessment, online faculty, online learning, pedagogy, reusability, students’ expectations of technology use, study skills, teacher education, technology-enhanced learning, TPCK, transfer of assessment practices, Virtual Learning Environment (VLE), Web 2.0,

 

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