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Journal Article

Codifying Game‑Based Learning: Development and Application of LEAGUÊ Framework for Learning Games  pp69-87

Rabail Tahir, Alf Inge Wang

© Jan 2020 Volume 18 Issue 1, Editor: Rikke Ørngreen and Heinrich Söbke, pp1 - 115

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Educational games are now seen as effective learning tools. However, there is a gap in the literature regarding the core dimensions of Game‑based learning (GBL) for comprehensive design, analysis, and evaluation due to inconsistent use of elements. The literature on GBL reports an extensive diversity of elements used for the design and evaluation of GBL without any categorization of micro and macro‑level elements. Hardly any studies systematically decompose these aspects to derivate factors/sub‑factors, obstructing identification of any clear pattern. The problem is not the scarcity of GBL research but inconsistency in terminology, scope, definition, and usage of elements leading to the absence of a holistic view of GBL for effective design and evaluation. This study bridges the gap by outlining terminology and scope with four conceptual levels and then systematically categorizing GBL elements by scope, definition, and usage. The methodology used is directed content analysis of GBL literature collected through a previous systematic literature review. Dimensionalization of GBL and further decomposition into factor/sub‑factors based on theoretical constructs, has resulted in a consistent and clear pattern delineating the structure of the educational game design, analysis, and evaluation. Further codifying metrics and mapping the relationship among GBL dimensions deduce into a conceptual framework (called LEAGUÊ) that facilitates greater insight into the process of learning with educational games, where to focus and what to evaluate. The LEAGUÊ framework can be applied for the analysis, design and evaluation of learning games. The framework is put in practice by utilizing the framework components (dimensions, factors/sub‑factors and relations) to develop three items: 1) an analysis instrument, 2)a card‑based ideation and design toolkit, and 3) an evaluation guide that can assist educational game designers, researchers, educators and evaluators for the analysis, design and evaluation of learning games respectively. This paper exemplifies the application of framework for the analysis of learning games using the analysis instrument (developed using LEAGUÊ framework) with one case study as an example.


Keywords: game-based learning, educational games, learning games, framework, dimensions, factors, relations, game analysis, evaluation, design


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Journal Issue

Volume 18 Issue 1 / Jan 2020  pp1‑115

Editor: Rikke Ørngreen, Heinrich Söbke

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Keywords: case study, development, educational change, e-learning, higher education, library, pedagogy, Research paradigm, research aims, research questions, design research, PBL, Medicine, Cloud-based learning, UNIO, Student-Run Free Clinic, Peer-assisted Learning, Web-based learning, Virtual Patient, Medical Education, Family Medicine, Information literacy, ICT4D, information access, contextualisation, education sector, game-based learning, educational games, learning games, framework, dimensions, factors, relations, game analysis, evaluation, design, digital and network society (DNS), open online learning (OOL), higher education (HE) curriculum, MOOC platforms, business model innovation, share economy, open education, Business Model Canvas


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