The Electronic Journal of e-Learning provides perspectives on topics relevant to the study, implementation and management of e-Learning initiatives
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Journal Issue
Volume 8 Issue 2, ECEL 2009 / Mar 2010  pp51‑208

Editor: Shirley Williams, Florin Salajan

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Evaluating the Impact of Distance Learning Support Systems on the Learning Experience of MBA Students in a Global Context  pp51‑62

Yongmei Bentley, Anjali Shegunshi, Mike Scannell

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The VLE as a Trojan Mouse: Policy, Politics and Pragmatism  pp63‑72

Mark Brown, Shelley Paewai, Gordon Suddaby

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Exploring the Current Theoretical Background About Adoption Until Institutionalization of Online Education in Universities: Needs for Further Research  pp73‑84

Ines Casanovas

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Interventions for Second‑Order Change in Higher Education: Challenges and Barriers  pp85‑92

Sebastian Fiedler, Terje Väljataga

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The Lecture is Dead Long Live the e‑Lecture  pp93‑100

Duncan Folley

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A Framework for Supporting Postsecondary Learners with Psychiatric Disabilities in Online Environments  pp101‑110

Scott Grabinger

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Enhancing the Impact of Formative Feedback on Student Learning Through an Online Feedback System  pp111‑122

Thanos Hatziapostolou, Iraklis Paraskakis

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Wiki Tools in the Preparation and Support of e‑Learning Courses  pp123‑132

Antonin Jancarik, Katerina Jancarikova

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Building the Future Students' Blended Learning Experiences from Current Research Findings  pp133‑140

Amanda Jefferies, Ruth Hyde

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Multiple Criteria Evaluation of Quality and Optimisation of e‑Learning System Components  pp141‑150

Eugenijus Kurilovas, Valentina Dagiene

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How do Students Measure Service Quality in e‑Learning? A Case Study Regarding an Internet‑based University  pp151‑160

María Martínez-Argüelles, José Castán

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Collaborative Language Learning for Professional Adults  pp161‑172

Linda Joy Mesh

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The Role of Essay Tests Assessment in e‑Learning: A Japanese Case Study  pp173‑178

Minoru Nakayama, Hiroh Yamamoto

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e‑Learning has some restrictions on how learning performance is assessed. Online testing is usually in the form of multiple‑choice questions, without any essay type of learning assessment. Major reasons for employing multiple‑choice tasks in e‑learning include ease of implementation and ease of managing learner's responses. To address this limitation in online assessment of learning, this study investigated an automatic assessment system as a natural language processing tool for conducting essay‑type tests in online learning. The study also examined the relationship between learner characteristics and learner performance in essay‑testing. Furthermore, the use of evaluation software for scoring Japanese essays was compared with experts' assessment and scoring of essay tests. Students were enrolled in two‑unit courses which were taught by the same professor as follows: hybrid learning course at bachelor's level, fully online course at bachelor's level, and hybrid learning course at masters level. All students took part in the final test which included two essay‑tests at the end of course, and received the appropriate credit units. Learner characteristics were measured using five constructs: motivation, personality, thinking styles, information literacy and self‑assessment of online learning experience. The essay‑tests were assessed by two outside experts. They found the two essay‑tests to be sufficient for course completion. Another score, which was generated using assessment software, consisted of three factors: rhetoric, logical structure and content fitness. Results show that experts' assessment significantly correlates with the factor of logical structure on the essay for all courses. This suggests that expert evaluation of the essay is focused on logical structure rather than other factors. When comparing the score of experts' assessment between hybrid learning and fully online courses at the bachelor's level, no significant differences were found. This indicates that in fully online learning, as well as in hybrid learning, learning performance can be measured using essay tests without the need for a face‑to‑face session to conduct this type of assessment. 


Keywords: online learning, essay-testing, learner characteristics, learning performance


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Experiences Obtained with Integration of Student Response Systems for iPod Touch and iPhone into e‑Learning Environments  pp179‑190

John Stav, Kjetil Nielsen, Gabrielle Hansen-Nygård, Trond Thorseth

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Emergence Of The Most Knowledgeable Other (MKO): Social Network Analysis Of Chat And Bulletin Board Conversations In A CSCL System  pp191‑208


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